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مجلة شهرية ثقافية مصورة تأسست عام 1958 تصدرها وزارة الإعلام بدولة الكويت للوطن العربي ولكل قارئ للعربية في العالم

 
  (العربي) تعلن عامها الجديد عاما للغة العربية وتنوه عن إصدار جديد يحمل اسم مجلة (الشباب العربي)   -    (العربي العلمي) في عدد أغسطس: تفتح ملف محاكاة الكون   -    (العربي الصغير) في عدد أغسطس: مغامرات الأبطال ورحلات الأطفال   -     
 
استطلاعات مصورة
ملتقيات العربي
مكتبة الفيديو
هدايا المجلة
أرشيف الوثائق

أرشيف الأعداد

 
 
 
العدد 633 - 2011/8 - Investigations - Ashraf Abul-Yazid An Exhibition in a Book.. Houses of God In the Gulf Arab Cities
An Exhibition in a Book.. Houses of God In the Gulf Arab Cities

Anyone who performs a prayer in, pays a visit to, or passes by houses of God in the Gulf Arab cities or looks carefully at their style of architecture will find out that they represent mosques in the Muslim world-East and West- on a smaller scale. That s why the book/exhibition Gulf Mosques is a geographic, historical and artistic exploration of the features of this global Islamic architecture, though it exists in just six countries: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Oman.

The 172-page book was published in both Arabic and English in a large format by Alwarraqun in Bahrian in a series whose chief editor is Abdullah Alhassan and is edited by Hassan Alshakhouri, with photographs by Muhammad Abd Ali Buhassan and Maysaa Muhammad Jaber Alansary and penmanship work by Sayyid Abbas.

In Muslim communities, the mosque plays such roles that vary in importance from age to age. But, whatever its architecture, size or geography may be, its permanent role has always been that of a place of worship, prayer, devotional retirement, recital of the Noble Quran and consideration of religious matters.

Besides being a place of prayer, early Muslim communities designated the mosque as a command centre during the age of conquests, a beacon of learning and a consultation house. That s why in planning Islamic cities the mosque was placed near caliphs offices and leaders houses. Early Islamic cities were open camps for Arab armies. Large areas were designated for grand mosques to be the nucleus of new cities when these camps turn into cities and capitals, as Basra, Kufa and Fustat did. In these particular cities mosques were built after the pattern of the Prophet s Mosque. Basra s, Kufa s and Fustat s mosques were built in AH4, AH17 and AH21 respectively. The latter was 5,030 cubits in area, and, like the Prophet s Mosque, did not have mihrabs or minarets.

As the caliphate moved to Damascus, the founder of the Umayyed dynasty, Muauwiya bin Abi Suffyan decided to build mosques not less magnificent than the places of worship of other religions. That marked a shift in the building of mosques from functional to aesthetic.

The mosque assumed new functions according to the development of Muslim communities. School and hospital extensions were added later ,but the main components remained the same: The mihrab, the Qibla wall, to begin with. The word mihrab in the past meant an elevated or separate room, or the best place in a place or house, and its current meaning settled after the spread of Islam when there was a need for determining the Qibla. When Amr In Al-As built his Alfath mosque at Fustat (Old Cairo) he consulted eighty companions to determine the Qibla.

We know that the companion Bilal bin Rabah was the first muezzin, and we also know that the Prophet s Mosque had no minarat, that s why he had to climb a tall pillar opposite the Prophet s Mosque to call to prayer. But twelve centuries after Hijra, the minaret became an integral part of the mosque, varying in shape, design, height and size. Cairo and Istanbul were known as the cities of one thousand and 444 minarets respectively, with a variety architectural designs over the ages.

In addition to the mihrab and minaret there is the minbar, which developed from having just three steps of tamarisk, with two cubits and three digits in height in the year AH7 until it took its present shape in terms of height and decorations not only on the minbar but everywhere, on the walls, doors, columns and platforms.

Next, the dome, which is the main component that enhances the mosque s external appearance. The first dome was the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem built by the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan in AH72.The Ottoman architect Sanan designed distinctive smaller domes in the Ottoman Empire cities.

Another part of the mosque is the court, which in many mosques has sources of running water for ablution. Then comes the portico, which was used as a place for teaching. Columns, which were engraved wood in the past, are today stone and marble decorated to take the shape of palm trees, lotus flowers or payri. Lintels, which supported ceilings, have become semicircular, pointed, pentagonal and straight arches to support heavy weights. Spaces between walls and ceilings at intersection points are decorated with chevrons (V-shaped mouldings), which look like beehives and were a construction factor ranging from the round to the circular surface and have now become a decorative element in most mosques.

Between mosque doors and balconies there are spaces of tranquillity to which modern uses have added a library. Similarly, there are wall-like partitions separating men s and women s sections. In all this, the mosque remains a piece of architecture where the call to prayer is made, as well as a permanent mark and record of Islamic presence.

(Translated by Dr Shaaban Afifi)

 

Ashraf Abul-Yazid


Cover



Geometric patterns and nature- inspired decorations; Mosque of the late Ali bin Ghanim; 2003, Abu Dhabi, UAE



Book cover



mihrabs, part of a large group, placed at the end of porticoes, lined with mosaic stones to contrast with the abstraction of the walls with their soft colour; Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Oman



mihrabs, part of a large group, placed at the end of porticoes, lined with mosaic stones to contrast with the abstraction of the walls with their soft colour; Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Oman



mihrabs, part of a large group, placed at the end of porticoes, lined with mosaic stones to contrast with the abstraction of the walls with their soft colour; Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Oman



mihrabs, part of a large group, placed at the end of porticoes, lined with mosaic stones to contrast with the abstraction of the walls with their soft colour; Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Oman



Heritage balconies, an artistic characteristic of Alkhalifa Mosuqe (1727), Kuwait



The minaret of Alshoyukh Mosque, with its distinctive green and soft decorations; Qatar



An example of a heritage mosque after restoration and renovation; Alwaqra, Qatar



A calligraphic design showing how gold is used with Arabic letters in aya 25, Al-Ahzab sura and Al-Shams sura; on the ceiling of Hajja Fatima Mosque, Kuwait



A partition separating women’s section; Ahmad Alfatih Islamic Centre, Bahrain



The library forms an important corner in the modern design of mosques; an example of a library with an elegant design, Hajja Fatima Mosque, Kuwait



The minarets of Aljumaira Mosuqe, Dubai which look like those of the Prophet’s Mosque



Decorated marble contrasting with the colour of engraved glass; Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque


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سجل الزوار

اشتراكات المجلة

موسوعة العربي

الكويت تاريخ وجغرافيا

نبذة عن العربي

الخدمات الإعلانية

ملتقيات العربي

أبواب العربي

بريد العربي

مواقع ثقافية

أخبار منوعة

فهرس الكتاب

مراكز التوزيع

قصص على الهواء

إصدارات كويتية

استطلاعات الوطن العربي

 
 
 

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جميع حقوق النشر والاقتباس محفوظة "لمجلة العربي" وزارة الإعلام - دولة الكويت  - 2013